Further Reading

1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/81771718/Qordoba-Translation-of-the-Syrian-Constitution-Modifications-15-2-2012. Constitution of Syria 2012.
2. "Central Intelligence Agency. November 2, 2011 est". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sy.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
3. a b c d "Syria". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2009&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&pr1.x=59&pr1.y=13&c=463&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
4. "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 2010. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
5. "World Directory of Minorities: Syria Overview". Minority Rights Group International. http://www.minorityrights.org/?lid=5266&tmpl=printpage. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
6. Neolithic Tell Ramad in the Damascus Basin of Syria. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
7. a b c d "Syria (05/07)". State.gov. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3580.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
8. Freedom on the world report. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
9. a b Michael Bröning (2011-03-07). "The Sturdy House That Assad Built". The Foreign Affairs. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67561/michael-broening/the-sturdy-house-that-assad-built.
10. Chairman's Conclusions of the International Conference of the Group of Friends of the Syrian People 24 February 2012.
11. Herodotus, The Histories, VII.63, s:History of Herodotus/Book 7.
12. Joseph, John (2008). "Assyria and Syria: Synonyms?" (PDF). http://www.jaas.org/edocs/v11n2/JohnJoseph.pdf.
13. First proposed by Theodor Nöldeke in 1881; cf. Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Syria". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Syria. Retrieved 2007-06-13.
14. Pipes, Daniel (1992). Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition. Middle East Forum. p. 13. ISBN 0-19-506022-9. http://books.google.com/?id=J3PsAb1uV94C&printsec=frontcover. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
15. Pliny (AD 77). "Book 5 Section 66". Natural History. University of Chicago Website. ISBN 84-249-1901-7. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/L/Roman/Texts/Pliny_the_Elder/5*.html.
16. "Syria :: Roman provincial organization – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/578856/Syria/29905/Roman-provincial-organization#default. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
17. a b National Council of Geography Teachers (U.S.) (1928). The Journal of Geography. The Journal of geography. p. 167.
18. F. A. Schaeffer, Claude (2003). Syria and the Cradle of Civilization: The Findings of Claude F a Schaeffer in Ras Shamra. Trubner & Company. ISBN 1-84453-129-5.
19. a b c d e f g h i j k l "Background Note: Syria". United States Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs, May 2007. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3580.htm.
20. a b c d "Syria: A country Study – Ancient Syria". Library of Congress. Data as of April 1987. http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_syriaancient.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
21. "The Aramaic Language and Its Classification". Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies 14 (1). http://www.jaas.org/edocs/v14n1/e8.pdf.
22. Relations between God and Man in the Hurro-Hittite Song of Release, Mary R. Bachvarova, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Jan–Mar SAAD 2005
23. a b Cavendish Corporation, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. p. 183. ISBN 0-7614-7571-0.
24. Syria: History Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2008-10-22.
25. Timeframe pp. 59–75.
26. Battle of Aleppo.
27. "The Eastern Mediterranean, 1400–1600 A.D". Metmuseum.org. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/08/wae/ht08wae.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
28. "Syria – Ottoman Empire". Library of Congress Country Studies.
29. Mandat Syrie-Liban. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
30. Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer (2001). "The Middle East, p. 761". The Encyclopedia of World History. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 978-0-395-65237-4. http://books.google.com/?id=MziRd4ddZz4C.
31. a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Syria: World War II and independence". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/578856/Syria/29922/World-War-II-and-independence.
32. Walt, Stephen (1990). The Origins of Alliances. Cornell University Press. pp. 72–73. ISBN 0-8014-9418-4.
33. http://www.torontosun.com/2012/02/10/syria-hasnt-changed-but-the-world-has
34. Brecher, Michael; Jonathan Wilkenfeld (1997). A Study of Crisis. University of Michigan Press. pp. 345–346. ISBN 0-472-10806-9.
35. Martin Gilbert (2002). The Routledge atlas of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Psychology Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-415-28116-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=UNvJ1FOwiAwC&pg=PA66. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
36. Oren, Michael. (2006). "The Six-Day War", in Bar-On, Mordechai (ed.), Never-Ending Conflict: Israeli Military History. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-98158-4, p. 135.
37. Gilbert, Martin. (2008). Israel – A History. McNally & Loftin Publishers. ISBN 0-688-12363-5, p. 365.
38. "United Nations Yearbook, 1966". http://unispal.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/f46f0d5ca57118da852562cf006c1096?OpenDocument&Highlight=0,united,nations,yearbook,1966.
39. Alasdair Drysdale, Raymond A. Hinnebusch (1991), "Syria and the Middle East peace process", Council on Foreign Relations, ISBN 0-87609-105-2, p. 99.
40. "OpenDocument Yearbook of the United Nations 1967". http://domino.un.org/UNISPAl.NSF/0/17bdf357679b218f85256c41006ad66d?.
41. Mark A. Tessler (1994). A History of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 382. ISBN 978-0-253-20873-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=3kbU4BIAcrQC&pg=PA382. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
42. General's Words Shed a New Light on the Golan By Serge Schmemann, May 11, 1997. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
43. Eyal Zisser (2002). "June 1967: Israel's Capture of the Golan Heights". Israel Studies 7 (1): 168–194.
44. "A Campaign for the Books". Time Magazine. September 1, 1967. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,837237,00. [dead link]
45. "Jordan asked Nixon to attack Syria, declassified papers show - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. 2007-11-28. http://edition.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/11/28/nixon.papers/index.html. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
46. Seale, Patrick (1988). Asad: The Struggle for the Middle East. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06976-5.
47. Rabinovich, Abraham (2005). The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East. New York, New York: Schocken Books. p. 302. ISBN 0-8052-4176-0.
48. Anti Syrian leader warns of more Lebanon killings The Epoch Times, 22 November 2006.
49. "Security Council Press Release SC/8372". Un.org. 2005-04-29. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/sc8372.doc.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
50. Syrian intelligence still in Lebanon Washington Post, April 27, 2005.
51. "Syria's Role in Lebanon by Mona Yacoubian: USIPeace Briefing: U.S. Institute of Peace". Usip.org. Archived from the original on 2008-07-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20080718063946/http://www.usip.org/pubs/usipeace_briefings/2006/1109_syria_lebanon.html. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
52. "تقرير الوزير اللبناني أحمد فتفت عن ملف المجنسين". Alzaytouna.net. http://www.alzaytouna.net/arabic/?c=201&a=52460. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
53. a b Ghadry, Farid N. (Winter 2005). "Syrian Reform: What Lies Beneath". The Middle East Quarterly. http://www.meforum.org/683/syrian-reform-what-lies-beneath.
54. Wright, Robin, Dreams and Shadows: the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press, 2008, pp. 243–4.
55. Marc Perelman (July 11, 2003). "Syria Makes Overture Over Negotiations - Forward.com". Forward.com. http://www.forward.com/articles/7655/. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
56. "Syria Smothering Freedom of Expression: the detention of peaceful critics". Amnesty International. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE24/007/2002/en/ee9fa6f2-d870-11dd-9df8-936c90684588/mde240072002en.html. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
57. George, Alan (2003). Syria: neither bread nor freedom. London: Zed Books. pp. 56–58. ISBN 1-84277-213-9. http://books.google.com/?id=dFdbVVcKsSIC&printsec=frontcover.
58. "The Damascus Declaration for Democratic National Change". 15 October 2005. http://www.demdigest.net/damascusdeclaration.html. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
59. "Profile: Syria's Bashar al-Assad". BBC News. Last Updated:. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2579331.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
60. "Bashar Al-Assad, President, Syria". Reporters Without Borders. http://en.rsf.org/predator-bashar-al-assad,37213.html.
61. "Red lines that cannot be crossed – The authorities don't want you to read or see too much". The Economist. 2008-07-24. http://www.economist.com/node/11792330.
62. Huggler, Justin (2003-10-06). "Israel launches strikes on Syria in retaliation for bomb attack". London: The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-launches-strikes-on-syria-in-retaliation-for-bomb-attack-582373.html. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
63. Fact Sheet, The White House.
64. "Naharnet Newsdesk – Syria Curbs Kurdish Riots for a Merger with Iraq's Kurdistan". Naharnet.com. http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/Newsdesk.nsf/Story/8A24116B9C5C2F34C2256E59002D08F0?OpenDocument&PRINT. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
65. Guerin, Orla (March 6, 2005). "Syria sidesteps Lebanon demands". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4322477.stm. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
66. Sanger, David (2007-10-14). "Israel Struck Syrian Nuclear Project, Analysts Say". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/14/washington/14weapons.html?hp. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
67. Walker, Peter; News Agencies (21 May 2008). "Olmert confirms peace talks with Syria". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/may/21/israelandthepalestinians.syria. Retrieved 2008-05-21. "Israel and Syria are holding indirect peace talks, with Turkey acting as a mediator...."
68. "Syrian army tanks 'moving towards Hama'". BBC News. 5 May 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13343540. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
69. "'Dozens killed' in Syrian border town". Al Jazeera. 17 May 2011. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/05/201151722757252901.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
70. "'Defected Syria security agent' speaks out". Al Jazeera. 8 June 2011. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/06/201168175624573155.html. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
71. "Syrian army starts crackdown in northern town". Al Jazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/06/201161064328691559.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
72. Sengupta, Kim (20 February 2012). "Syria's sectarian war goes international as foreign fighters and arms pour into country". The Independent (Antakya). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/syrias-sectarian-war-goes-international-as-foreign-fighters-and-arms-pour-into-country-7216665.html. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
73. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named extremetorture; see the help page.
74. Arab League delegates head to Syria over 'bloodbath'
75. "Number as a civil / military". Translate.googleusercontent.com. http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF8&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&sl=ar&tl=en&u=http://syrianshuhada.com/default.asp%3Fa%3Dst%26st%3D7&usg=ALkJrhjgBFKK6VIV9Bbocy6W-jbZe_D0CA. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
76. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named syriangovernment2; see the help page.
77. "UNICEF says 400 children killed in Syria unrest". Google News. Agence France-Presse (Geneva). 7 February 2012. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jn_Hwm1c4s57hZroY2XO3gtvHl_g?docId=CNG.d4e0242216423f0ddcaa53de60d07900.f1. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
78. Peralta, Eyder (3 February 2012). "Rights Group Says Syrian Security Forces Detained, Tortured Children: The Two-Way". NPR. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2012/02/03/146346490/rights-group-says-syrian-security-forces-detained-tortured-children. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
79. http://www.sana.sy/print.html?sid=400319&newlang=eng
80. Fahim, Kareem (5 January 2012). "Hundreds Tortured in Syria, Human Rights Group Says". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/06/world/middleeast/hundreds-tortured-in-syria-human-rights-group-says.html.
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84. "Syria: Armed Opposition Groups Committing Abuses". Human Rights Watch. 20 March 2012. http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/03/20/syria-armed-opposition-groups-committing-abuses. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
85. "Open Letter to the Leaders of the Syrian Opposition Regarding Human Rights Abuses by Armed Opposition Members". Human Rights Watch. 20 March 2012. http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/03/20/open-letter-leaders-syrian-opposition. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
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87. MacFarquhar, Neil (12 Novermber 2011). "Arab League Votes to Suspend Syria". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/13/world/middleeast/arab-league-votes-to-suspend-syria-over-its-crackdown-on-protesters.html. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
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96. "more than one dozen intelligence agencies" source: Wright, Robin, Dreams and shadows, the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press, 2008, p.214
97. hundreds of thousands of mukhabarat" according to dissident Riad Seif source: Wright, Robin, Dreams and shadows, the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press, 2008, p.230
98. "Syria among worst for rights abuses: HRW report". Reuters. 2011-01-24. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/01/24/us-syria-rights-idUSTRE70N5S620110124.
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100. a b Human Rights Watch Anuual Report http://www.hrw.org/en/node/79303
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110. Morris (2001), p. 327: "Another eighty to ninety thousand civilians fled or were driven from the Golan Heights."
111. Report of the UN Secretary-General under GA res. 2252 (ES-V) and SC res. 237 (1967), p. 14: "The original population, assumed to have been some 115,000 according to Syrian sources, and some 90,000 according to Israel sources, included 17,000 Palestinian refugees registered with UNRWA. At the time of the Special Representative's visit, this entire population had left the area, except for some 6,000 Druses living in agricultural villages and for some 250 other civilians living mainly in the town of Kuneitra". Retrieved 2010-02-01.
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145. Plutarch, Cicero, c. 4; Lucullus, c. 4; Cicero, Academica, ii. 19.
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149. Antoun, Richard (1991). Syria: Society, Culture, and Polity. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-0713-6.
150. Salti, Rasha (2006). Insights Into Syrian Cinema: Essays and Conversations with Contemporary Filmmakers. ArteEast. ISBN 1-892494-70-1.
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